Antibiotic resistance in a one-health context and Causes

Antibiotic resistance plays an important and influence on one’s health as treating an antibiotic-resistant infection is difficult. The management of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotics by patients should be resolved after good consultation with a doctor. The unwanted usage of high doses also causes genetic mutation in bacteria leading to antibiotic resistance. It has been estimated that 700,000 to several million deaths result per year as the resistance is increasing globally as exposure to antibiotic drugs has increased in developing countries.

Antibiotics are medicines used to avoid and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria transform in response to the utilization of these medicines. Bacteria, not humans or animals, become antibiotic-resistant. These bacteria may infect humans and animals, and the infections they cause are harder to treat than those caused by non-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic resistance leads to higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays, and expanded mortality. The world immediately needs to transform the way it prescribes and uses antibiotics. Even if new medicines are developed, without behavior transformed, antibiotic resistance will continue a major threat. Behavior transformations must also include actions to reduce the spread of infections through vaccination, hand washing, practicing safer sex, and good food hygiene.

Reasons for the comprehensive use of antibiotics in human medicine include:

  • Increasing universal availability over time since the 1950s
  • Uncontrolled sale in many low or middle-income countries, where they can be obtained over the counter without a prescription, potentially resulting in antibiotics being used when not indicated. This may result in the emergence of resistance in any remaining bacteria.

Other causes include:

  • Antibiotic benefits in livestock feed at minor doses for improvement promotion is an accepted practice in many industrialized countries and are known to lead to increased levels of resistance.
  • Releasing huge quantities of antibiotics into the environment during pharmaceutical manufacturing through incompetent wastewater treatment increases the risk that antibiotic-resistant strains will develop and extended.
  • It is uncertain whether antibacterial in soaps and other products share to antibiotic resistance, but antibacterial soaps are discouraged for other reasons.

  • Clinical significance
  • Veterinary medicine
  • Natural occurrence
  • Water pollution

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