Types of Antibiotics and importance

Most antibiotics fall into their individual antibiotic classes. An antibiotic class is a grouping of different drugs that have identical chemical and pharmacologic properties. Their chemical structures may look commensurate, and drugs within the same class may kill the same or related bacteria.

Antibiotics are generally classified based on their mechanism of actionchemical structure, or spectrum of activity. Most target bacterial functions or growth processes. Those target the bacteria cell (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell layer (polymyxins), or prevent with necessary bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones and sulfonamides) have bactericidal actions. Protein synthesis inhibitors (macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracyclines) are generally bacteriostatic (with the omission of bactericidal aminoglycosides). Further categorization is based on their target specificity. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics focus on specific types of bacteria (gram-negative or gram-positive), whereas antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria. Following a 40-year break in discovering new types of antibacterial compounds, four new classes of antibiotics have been brought into clinical use in the late 2000s and early 2010s: cyclic lipopeptides (like as daptomycin), glycylcyclines (like as tigecycline), oxazolidinones (like as linezolid), and lipiarmycins (like as fidaxomicin).

  • Penicillins
  • Tetracycline
  • Cephalosporins
  • Quinolones
  • Lincomycins

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